50 Years Ago….


Murali did his undergraduate degree in molecular biology with a minor in biophysics from the National University of Singapore (NUS). He then changed direction and did his Masters in Philosophy also at NUS. Now, he is currently pursuing a PhD in Philosophy at the University of Warwick.

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2 Responses

  1. CK MacLeod says:

    Tis a very interesting and useful discussion to be held about Lee Kuan Yew’s approach, which Fukuyama discusses at various points as a critical – instructive if exceptional – case. The relationship between forceful integration of a multi-ethnic populace as both exercise and production of state power is a sticky problem for a much larger country like the U.S.: It’s hard to imagine anything short of an interstellar cataclysm making Americans and for that matter the world comfortable with a U.S. state power capable of that much authority and effectiveness, but, if American state capacity must remain limited, then it would seem to set an upper limit on achievable national integration, too.Report

    • LeeEsq in reply to CK MacLeod says:

      Positive social engineering works better on a small rather than large population because everything always seems more intimate. Singapore was about the size and population of a big city when it achieved and independence and in the present. Even if the various communities were separate, there was still a greater degree of closeness than in the United States because living completely apart was not anymore possible in Singapore than it was in the big American cities; where even though each group might have their own neighborhoods they still have to interact. Scaling positive social engineering up to deal with bigger populations and areas does not seem to work because many people find that they are being imposed on by outside forces that they can’t control.

      Negative social engineering seems sadly workable at any level of population or area.Report